In addition to drug and alcohol testing and criminal record checks, a pre-employment screening
of an applicant's health is necessary within some fields in order to help employers ascertain whether the applicant is medically fit and capable of carrying out the tasks required by the position for which he or she is applying.
Pre-employment medical screenings can contribute to reducing instances of injuries on the job, which occur as a result of physical unpreparedness and can lead to costly workers' compensation claims. They can also help companies to send the message to candidates that they are serious about their employees' health. However, there are specifications that must be followed in order to avoid breaking the law. The Americans with Disabilities Act places restrictions on asking potential employees to answer certain medical questions, take medical exams and identify disabilities. Employers may not directly question applicants about any disabilities that are not obvious, and are instead required to ask whether an applicant believes he or she can perform tasks associated with the job, according to the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Additionally, employees can only be requested to answer medical questions or take a medical exam after a job offer has been made.